Status epilepticus is an emergency that requires rapid and effective treatment to prevent neurological injury and systemic complications of prolonged seizure activity. A number of poisons, such as metaldehyde, tremorgenic mycotoxins and permethrin, can cause prolonged seizures.

A recent multi-centre randomised study compared intranasal and intravenous midazolam in dogs with status epilepticus and found both routes are quick, safe and effective for controlling seizures. The intranasal route was superior, however, when the time needed to place an IV catheter was taken into account. The dose of midazolam was the same for both routes of administration. See an earlier study which describes the method of administration in more detail.